Bitnami Drupal


    How-To Guides

    Upgrade AMI guide

    Migration from local installation to the cloud


    Drupal is a content management platform that allows an individual or community of users to easily publish, manage, and organize a wide variety of content on a website. In general, Drupal is used for community web portals, discussion sites, corporate web sites, intranet applications, personal web sites or blogs, aficionado sites, e-commerce applications, resource directories, and social networking sites. Drupal is easy to extend by plugging in one or more of the dozens of freely available modules.

    Please, take a look to the Quick Start Guide to know the basic use of this Stack.

    How to start/stop the servers?

    Graphical tool

    The native installers include a graphical tool to manage the servers easily. You can find the "manager-windows.exe", "manager-osx" or "manager-linux" tool in your installation directory. Using this tool, you can Start, Stop or Restart the servers and check the log files. You can click on the icon to start it.














    On Windows: You can also start the Manager tool from shortcuts: Start -> Program Files -> Bitnami Stack -> Manager tool

    Command line tool

    If you prefer, you can use the "" utility from the command line. This script is in the installation directory.


    On Virtual Machines and Cloud images:

    $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ start

    A native installer on Linux:

    $ cd ~/application-version
    $ ./ start



    On OS X: You can start the Manager tool from the installation directory or you can use the "" utility from a Terminal.

    host:~ user$ cd /Applications/application-version
    host:~ user$ ./ start

    How to change the default URL to root?

    This approach describes how to configure your application to run in the root URL directly. Also, you will be able to modify the URL to a NEW_DOMAIN using the bnconfig tool. The details are described below.

    Automatic Approach

    This approach is based on the Bitnami Configuration Tool (bnconfig).

    Bitnami Cloud Hosting

    The best way to change your URL in BCH is to go to your application tab and modify it there. In the Bitnami Cloud Hosting console, select Servers, choose your server, Manage and go to the Applications tab. Press there the pencil next to the application which URL you want to modify and choose .

    Refer to this guide for more information.

    Cloud Images and Virtual Machines

    Moving the application to /

     If your application is running in "/drupal" you can remove the prefix from the URL executing the following command:

    $ sudo /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/bnconfig --appurl /

    (use --help to check if that option is available for your application)

    Now you will be able to access to the application at http://YOUR_DOMAIN instead of http://YOUR_DOMAIN/drupal.

    Updating the IP or hostname

    Some applications require to update the IP/domain if the machine IP/domain changes. The bnconfig tool also has an option which updates the IP automatically during boot, called machine_hostname (use --help to check if that option is available for your application). Note that this tool changes the URL to http://NEW_DOMAIN/drupal

    sudo /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/bnconfig --machine_hostname NEW_DOMAIN

    If you already moved your application to the root URL you should include both options at the same time.

    sudo /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/bnconfig --appurl / --machine_hostname NEW_DOMAIN

    If you have configured your machine to use an static domain name or IP, you should rename or remove the "/opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/bnconfig" file.

    sudo mv /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/bnconfig /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/bnconfig.disabled

    Native Installer

    Remember to use your actual installation directory instead of installdir.

    Moving the application to /

    If your application is running in "/drupal" you can remove the prefix from the URL executing the following command:

    On Linux,

    installdir/apps/drupal/bnconfig --appurl /

    On Mac OS X, 

    installdir/apps/drupal/ --appurl /

    On Windows,

    installdir/apps/drupal/bnconfig.exe --appurl /

    (use --help to check if that option is available for your application)

    Now you will be able to access to the application at http://YOUR_DOMAIN instead of http://YOUR_DOMAIN/drupal.

    Updating the IP or hostname

    Some applications require to update the IP/domain if the machine IP/domain changes. The bnconfig tool also has an option which updates the IP , called machine_hostname (use --help to check if that option is available for your application). Note that this tool changes the URL to http://NEW_DOMAIN/drupal.

    installdir/apps/drupal/bnconfig --machine_hostname NEW_DOMAIN

    If you already moved your application to the root URL you should include both options at the same time.

    installdir/apps/drupal/bnconfig --appurl / --machine_hostname NEW_DOMAIN

    Tabs end

    Manual Approach

    If you want to change the default URL from http://your_domain/drupal to http://your_domain, edit the installdir/apps/drupal/conf/httpd-prefix.conf file so that it looks like the file below:

    DocumentRoot "/installdir/apps/drupal/htdocs"
    # Alias /drupal/ "/installdir/apps/drupal/htdocs/"
    # Alias /drupal "/installdir/apps/drupal/htdocs"
    Remember that you must substitute installdir with your actual installation directory (for native installers) or /opt/bitnami (for cloud images and virtual machines).

    Some applications also require additional changes in their configuration files or in their database.

    In this case it is also necessary to modify the following lines in "installdir/apps/drupal/conf/htaccess.conf" file:

    # RewriteBase /drupal
    RewriteBase /

    Finally restart the Apache server:

    $ /installdir/ restart apache

    How to create a full backup of Drupal?

    Because Bitnami stacks are self-contained, the simplest option for performing your backups is to copy or compress the Bitnami Stack installation directory. To do so in a safe manner, you will need to stop all servers, so this method may not be appropriate if you have people accessing the application continously.

    linux_platform.pngOn Virtual Machines and Cloud Images:

    sudo /opt/bitnami/ stop


    On OS X:

    $ cd installdir
    $ ./ stop
    $ cp -r installdir application-backup

    Or you can create a tarball:

    $ tar -czvf application-backup.tar.gz installdir

    Or a zip file:

    $ zip -r installdir/*

    To restore this backup you only need to uncompress the backup in the same location. It is important to use the same path that was used when the stack was originally installed.

    For example if you have a backup in a Red Hat machine, you can copy it to an Ubuntu Linux machine (a different distro!) in the same location. Then start the servers and that’s all.

    On Virtual Machines and Cloud Images:

    $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ start

    On OS X:

    $ cd installdir
    $ ./ start

    You just need to be carefull to keep the same permissions for the files and folders. If you installed as root make sure that in the new machine you copy the files also as root. And this case, if you are also moving MySQL or PostgreSQL, you will need to create those users in the new machine (if they don't exist yet).

    win_platform.png On Windows you should follow the same process. Stop the servers using the shortcuts and copy the whole installation directory. To restore the system, copy the directory to a different Windows machine in the same location and follow these steps from a command prompt:

    $ cd installdir
    $ serviceinstall.bat INSTALL

    You can access your Bitnami Application at the usual URL.

    If you want to create only a database backup, check the following link for MySQL /Components/MySQL#How_to_create_a_database_backup or for PostgreSQL /Components/PostgreSQL#How_to_create_a_database_backup.3f

    How to upgrade Drupal?

    It is strongly recommended that you create a backup before starting the update process. If you have important data, it is advisable that you create and try to restore a backup to ensure that everything works properly.

    There are two different ways to upgrade your application.

    1. If you want to upgrade the application and all Stack components PHP, Ruby, MySQL, Apache… You can follow the steps described at How to upgrade the full Stack migrating the data?
    2. In case you only want to upgrade the application code without modifying any other Stack components,  you should follow the guide which is in the application page itself.

    In the Drupal case you can find the upgrade steps at

    How to install a plugin on Drupal?

    To install a module in Drupal it is necessary to copy and uncompress it in the installdir/apps/drupal/htdocs/modules folder. Then you can enable the Module in the Modules section in the Drupal administration panel.

    Bitnami Drupal virtual appliances and AMIs have already installed and configured a FTP server, so you can install modules from the Administration panel.

    How to configure the email settings of Drupal?

    It is necessary to install the SMTP module in a Drupal installation. You should download and install the following modules:

    - SMTP Authentication Support Module for Drupal (
    - PHPmailer package from SourceForge ( This module is already included in Drupal since 7.0 version.

    To install:

    • Upload SMTP Module zip/tar file to your Drupal installation's 'sites/all/modules' directory and unzip. (Previous Drupal version have the modules already installed in "/modules" folder).
    • Create a folder called phpmailer in your new sites/all/modules/smtp directory.
    • Upload the PHPmailer zip/tar file to sites/all/modules/smtp/phpmailer and unzip to that directory.

    To configure:

    • In Drupal, go to Administer/Site Building/Modules and enable SMTP Authentication Support.
    • Now go to Administer 'by Module' tab, scroll down to SMTP Authentication Support and click on 'SMTP Authentication Support'.
    • Enter the following configuration options. I configure it using a gmail account.
    1. SMTP Server -
    2. SMTP backup server - leave blank
    3. SMTP port - 465
    4. Use encrypted protocol - Use SSL
    5. Username - your GoogleApps or Gmail email account in full (; yourname@yourdomain)
    6. Password - your GoogleApps or Gmail password
    7. email from address - the email address you want messages to appear to be from (e.g. no-reply@yourdomain or your actual address)
    8. E-mail from name - the name you want emails to appear to be from (e.g. 'Yourdomain Support' or your real name)
    9. Send test email

    How to translate Drupal to my language?

    Bitnami Drupal has already installed English and Spanish translations currently and we will work for adding more languages. If you want to change the Drupal language you can do that from the administration interface:

    1. Configuration -> Modules -> Enable Locale module
    2. Configuration -> Languages -> Add a Language
    3. Choose your language and that's all

    How to integrate Solr with Drupal?

    Bitnami Drupal 7 ships a plugin to allow the integration between a Bitnami Solr 3 AMI and a Bitnami Drupal 7 AMI. To do so, the following steps must be followed. 

    First, start two instances from the Amazon console, one with Drupal and one with Solr. You can search by name in the Community AMIs listings or you can start them directly from the Bitnami Drupal and Solr pages. In this case, we will start an EBS image with Ubuntu 64 bit.

    For the Solr instance, you must add a new rule to your security group. The default Solr port is 8983, so you should open it to connect the Drupal application with the Solr instance. If you know the IP address where the Drupal instance is running, you can enable connections only to that IP address.
    Once the Solr and Drupal instances are running, you can check that both are running using the public domain names.

    The Bitnami Drupal Stack already has the Apache Solr Search Integration module installed, so you just need to enable the Solr Search and Access modules. If you do not have this module installed, you can install it from the Administration panel.

    The Bitnami Solr AMI ships an example already configured. To configure the Solr server properly for Drupal, copy the schema.xml and solrconfig.xml files from the Solr Search module. You can find these files in the "/opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/sites/all/modules/apachesolr/solr-conf" folder in the Drupal instance. Copy these files into the "/opt/bitnami/apache-solr/solr/conf" directory and restart the Solr server.
    $ sudo /opt/bitnami/ restart solr

    In the Solr admin panel, you should now see something like "drupal-3.0-beta16" or "drupal-3.0-0-solr3". If this is the case, everything is ready on the Solr side.
    Now, we will configure the Drupal application. Go to "Modules" -> "Search toolkit" and enable both Apache Solr framework and Apache Solr search. Go to the bottom and press "Save configuration".


    Click on the "Modules" -> "Solr Search Framework" configuration button and add a new connection:
    Name: Remote Solr
    Test the connection. If it is not able to contact the Solr server, check that the IP address is correct and the 8983 port is ready for connections. 
    Now, configure the Drupal application to use Solr by default. Go to "Configuration" -> "Search settings" and enable Apache Solr search in the default search modules. If you have already content in your Drupal installation, you can re-index your site. This could take some time depending on your blog content. That's it! Test the setup by trying to use the search block in your site to see the results. 
    You can find specific documentation for Drupal configuration with Solr here.

    How to enable SSL?

    You can see how to configure Apache to enable SSL connections at How to enable SSL to access through https?

    How to debug errors?

    Once Apache starts, it will create two log files, the access_log and the error_log /installdir/apache2/logs directory or in /var/log/httpd if you are using Amazon Linux or Red Hat Enterprise cloud images.

    In Virtual Machines, Cloud Images and Ubuntu based Bitnami Cloud Hosting images installdir is /opt/bitnami.

    The access_log file is used to track client requests. When a client requests a document from the server, Apache records several parameters associated with the request in this file, such as: the IP address of the client, the document requested, the HTTP status code, and the current time.

    The error_log file is used to record important events. This file includes error messages, startup messages, and any other significant events in the life cycle of the server. This is the first place to look when you run into a problem when using Apache.

    If no error is found, you will see a message similar to:

    Syntax OK
    /installdir/ : httpd started

    The main MySQL log file is created at /installdir/mysql/data/mysqld.log file.

    How to increase the allowed size of the uploaded files?

    You can modify the following option in the php.ini file to increase the allowed size for uploads:

    ; Maximum size of POST data that PHP will accept.
    post_max_size = 16M
    ; Maximum allowed size for uploaded files.
    upload_max_filesize = 16M

    If you have enabled PHP-FPM (enabled by default in Cloud Images and VMs) you need to restart PHP-FPM running the following command:

    sudo /opt/bitnami/ restart php-fpm

    Note: For native installers replace /opt/bitnami with your current installation directory.

    Otherwise, you need to restart the Apache server:

    sudo YOUR_INSTALLATION_DIRECTORY/ restart apache


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